25 avr

Le bois : petit dictionnaire des idées reçues

Categorie: Harmonie 1

Depuis 25 ans, AUBRILAM défend l’idée de l’utilisation du matériau bois. 25 années passées à se battre contre des idées reçues, des idées tenaces et souvent fausses que le « petit dictionnaire des idées reçues » du CNDB, (Comité National pour le Développement du Bois), vient heureusement bousculer …

La nouvelle campagne du CNDB, « le bois, c’est essentiel » tombe à point nommé. Largement diffusée en presse grand public et en télévision, elle est l’heureux pendant de son nouveau et très complet nouveau site internet : www.bois.com.

bois-dico

L’environnement :

« Couper du bois c’est tuer la forêt »

Couper du bois, ce n’est pas tuer la forêt, mais simplement accompagner le travail de la nature. Le forestier est avant tout un amoureux de la forêt, dont il prend soin au quotidien. Il prélève les arbres à maturité et favorise ainsi le renouvellement de la forêt. Et quand il fait des coupes parmi les plus jeunes, c’est pour mieux encourager les plus beaux à se développer. Entretien, coupes et reboisements maintiennent également la diversité biologique et la vitalité de la forêt.

« Exploiter la forêt, ce n’est pas bon contre l’effet de serre »

Les jeunes arbres n’ont qu’une ambition : grandir. Et ils ont besoin d’absorber beaucoup de gaz carbonique pour ça. Ils sont bien plus gourmands que leurs aînés. Une forêt exploitée et renouvelée est donc un excelent moyen de lutte contre l’effet de serre !

« Nos forêts diminuent »

La surface occupée par les forêts européenes ne cesse de croître. Chaque année, elle gagne l’équivalent de la surface de l’île de Chypre. En France, elle couvre aujourd’hui plus de 16 millions d’hectares – soit une progression de 60 % en un siècle. On plante, chaque année, 80 millions d’arbres. Et entre 1985 et 1995, la forêt française a progressé de 30 000 hectares par an !

Un matériau d’avenir

La france entretient depuis le 17ème siècle une tradition de bonne gestion forestière (code forestier de Colbert). Grâce à cela, et à un cycle de renouvellement (30 ans pour un pin, 120 ans pour un chêne), le bois est le matériau naturel inépuisable par excellence. Ecologique et renouvelable, robuste et élégant : à coup sûr, un matériau d’avenir.

Entretien et sécurité

« Le bois, ça s’entretient en permanence »

Quel que soit le matériau employé, toute construction requiert un « toilettage » régulier. Et comme le prouvent les multiples exemples de constructions anciennes, la construction bois, bien conçue et réalisée par des professionnels qualifiés, n’implique pas un entretien plus fréquent.

« Le bois est fragile, il résiste mal aux insectes »

Ponts, marinas, pilotis, constructions navales … sont autant d’exemples qui démontrent la résistance du bois dans des environnements à priori hostiles. Que dire des constructions à pans de bois (de chêne) qui ont résisté au temps comme aux attaques d’insectes.

« Le bois est dangereux en cas d’incendie »

Certes, le bois brûle dans nos cheminées l’hiver. Mais aussi surprenant que cela puisse paraître, il offre une excellente tenue au feu. Sa faible conductivité thermique en fait un bon isolant : le bois transmet la chaleur 10 fois moins vite que le béton et 250 fois moins vite que l’acier ! En outre, sa teneur en eau entraîne la formation d’une croute carbonisée. Celle-ci devient dés lors isolante, et freine la combustion jusqu’à l’empêcher.

Solide comme du bois !

En cas d’incendie, ce matériau se révèle même plus sûr que d’autres, puisqu’une structure en bois conserve sa capacité de portance plus longtemps que son équivalent en acier ou en béton. Quand le bois brûle, il se consume lentement en gardant ses qualités mécaniques pendant de longues heures et sans dégager de gaz toxiques. Toujours pas convaincu ? Pour preuve, les pompiers autorisent l’utilisation du bois dans les parois coupe-feu !

Les applications du bois

« Avec le bois, on ne peut pas tout faire »

Le bois est créatif. De par son origine végétale, le bois est un matériau hétérogène, qui à partir de centaines d’essences variées, présente des aspects divers et des singularités qui en font la richesse. La construction est le premier consommateur de bois : 65 % du bois français trouve son utilisation dans la construction. En intérieur comme en extérieur, il se met au service des architectes, artisans, entrepreneurs … qui apprécient sa légèreté, sa robustesse et son aspect chaleureux. Ses caractéristiques mécaniques et physiques (légèreté, résistance, durabilité) lui permettent, en regard de son faible poids, d’atteindre des portées longtemps réservées à l’acier.

« Le bois ne peut s’utiliser qu’en intérieur »

Résolument polyvalent, le bois s’utilise aussi bien en structure (charpente, ossature), qu’en intérieur (parquet, lambris, meubles, …) et en extérieur (bardages, terrasses, clôtures…). Et grâce à sa robustesse, sa légèreté et ses qualités de portance, il constitue, plus souvent qu’on ne le croit, l’élément structurel de la maison : charpente, ossature (murs), poteaux et poutres, panneaux … Excellent isolant thermique, le bois est aussi un isolant phonique efficace.

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